Lepidoptera

Callopistria pulchrilinea (Walker, 1862)

Common Names

小網散紋夜蛾 (Chinese), 麗紋散紋夜蛾 (Chinese)

Languages: English

Description

Diagnostic Description

Wingspan 24-25mm in male (n = 13), 22-23 mm in female (n = 5)

Head - Proboscis fully developed; 2nd labial palpal segment fringed with long scales extending anteriorly, 3rd segment porrect; frons round frontally; eye large; male antennae contorted at approximately 1/3 at base.

Thorax – Clothed with rufous or dark long scales on three segments, paired crests on mesothorax rufous. Legs of male fringed with long hair-tufts on three tibial segments and 1st tarsi; androconial scales black, arising from meso-tibia. Male femur fringed with long black scales on innerside; tibia, 1st tarsi covered with long scales on outerside; fore tibia fringed with androconial scales on outer side; outerside of 2nd mid-tarsi and two spurs of hind tibia fringed with erected long scales. Forewing ground colour rufous in male, brownish-dark in female, sexual dimorphism, tinged with orcheous on veins; short scales arising from Cu1 humeral plate; termen produced and acute at vein M3; tornus with short scale-tuft at approximately 2/3 part at base; antemedial line pinkish white and angled in cell cu2, with distal margin pink; orbicular stigma lanceolate with white margin; reniform stigma with white margin and an internal pink oblique stripe; a brownish black patch extending to costa present between two stigmas; white medial spot slender interrupted by vein M3 and locating medially between reniform stigma and postmedial line; postmedial line pinkish white with distal margin pink, acutely inwards on R stalk, oblique straight outwards to M3, then angled inwards to Cu2, finally as straight to tornus; submarginal stripes white, oblique, arising from costal margin to vein M3; marginal line white.

Pregenital abdomen – Ground coloration orcheous with light-coloured intersegmental stripes; crests orcheous or black present at 1st to 3rd segments; male with specialized scale tufts arising latero-ventrally from 2nd sternite; male 8th sternite and its paired lateral rods fringed with long scales; posterior margin of 8th sternite ladder-shaped with each lateral extension hooked inwards; female 7th sternite membranous without modification.

Male genitalia - Uncus down-curved with apex obtusely expanded and densely setose and long hairs ventrally, base of uncus slightly projected bilaterally and fused with apex of tegumen; scaphium consisting of two slender sclerites laying almost parallely; subscaphium having two bend-like sclerites attaching firmly with tuba analis; tegumen ridged at anterior margin, membranous part with lanceolate scale tufts arising postero-ventrally; tegumeno-ventral sclerites fused with tegumen; transtillae fused with lower end of tegument; anellus porrect, derived from dorso-medial part of transtillae and having a bifurcate apex curving downwards; manica enclosing phallobase and covered with minute spinulose scobination and and gathered small spines ventrally; juxta fused with sacculus laterally and connected with transtillae ventral-laterally; vinculum short and protruded apical-laterally; saccus dorm-shaped ventrally with a bifid apex at posterior-ventral extension; valvae with sacculus broader and more sclerotized than membranous costal region, but without clasper and harpe complex; subzones I of sacculus papillate, subzone II triangular, subzone III with proximal part ridge-wrinkled postero-dorsally and with squamiform scales upon it, distal part papillate pointing latero-ventrally and with gathered short scale tufts at apex and hair tufts antero-ventrally. Aedeagus heavily sclerotized, composed of an asymmetrical sheath with a short vesica and cornuti as dense spines latero-ventrally, tubular extension of vesica bending laterally when fully swollen, phallobase protruded anteriorly.

Female genitalia - Papillae anales slightly sclerotized at anterior margin and truncate from lateral view; 8th sternite absent; apophysis posterioris extending anteriorly to anterior margin of 8th tergite; apophysis anterioris slender, extending anteriorly to medial part of 7th tergite; ductus bursae short conjuncting with lateral appendix bursae without clear separation, a dense additional internal sclerite prominently present in appendix bursae to ductus bursae; corpus bursae membranous about 1.5 times longer than 7th sternite, without signum; ductus seminalis wrinkled arising from conjunction of ductus bursae and corpus bursae. Hindwing dark ochreous.

Larva – Backgroud colour of mature larva light green; head of mature larva with two pairs of longitudinal stripe from upper to lower margin, inner pair black and closing adfrontal sutures, outer pair dark black, crossing regions of stemmatae; lateral line black, discontinues, irregular from prothorax to A8; anterior margin of prothorax with black ring, mesothorax to A8 with black spots dorsally, mesothoracic one short band-like, others as irregular triangle; 4th instar larva with similar patterns but dorsal irregular triangular spots without black filled.

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Taxon Biology

The larvae of this species were first reared out from Selaginella uncinata (Selaginellaceae, Lycophyta) (Hayashi, 2002), an ornamental species originated in China but already naturalized in many areas. In Taiwan, the same plant was ever observed being utilized by this species in Taipei Botanical Garden (Y.B. Fan, 2002, pers. comm.). Another rearing record in Taiwan was obtained from S. delicatula (Desv.) Alston, 1932.

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Type

Obana pulchrilinea Walker, 1862: 190 (Type locality: Borneo, Sarawak. Type in OXUM)

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Specimen Examined

TAIWAN. Taipei County: 1♂, Sindian, Shikanshuei, 28-X-2006, S. Wu leg. (NTUIM); 1♂, Wulai, 3-XII-2005, S. Wu leg. (NTUIM); Tainan County: 1♂, Kanshirei, 26-VIII-1904, A. E. Wileman leg. (NHM); 1♀, same locality, 27-VII-1906, A. E. Wileman leg. (NHM); 1♂, same locality, 25-X-1908, A. E. Wileman leg. (NHM); Kaohsiung County: 1♂, Duo-na, 16-IX-2005, S. Wu leg. (NTUIM); 1♂, Tengzhi, 30-I-2006, L. C. Shih leg. (NSYSU);; Ilan County: 1♂, Fushan Botanical Garden, 5-XI-1991, Y. B. Fan leg. (TFRI); 1♂, same locality, 30-XII-1994, A. Warneke leg. (TFRI); 1♀, same locality, 26-XI-1995, Y. B. Fan leg. (TFRI); 1♀, same locality, 27-XI-1999, A. Kun, L. Peregovits & L. Ronkay leg. (HNHM); 1♂1♀, same locality, 22-XI-2008, S. Wu leg. (NTUIM); INDIA. Sikkim, 1♀, 4-VIII-1890, G. C. Dudgeon leg. (NHM); 1♂, same locality, collecting date and collector unknown leg. (NHM). INDONESIA. W. Celebes: 1♂, Paloe, XI-1936, J. P. A. Kalis leg. (NHM). MALAYSIA. Borneo: 1♀, Sarawak, Gunong, Mulu National Park, 1977, J. D. Holloway et al. leg. (NHM); NEPAL. Janakpur: 1♂, Dolakha, Shera, 19-X-1979, M. Owada leg. (NSMT); VIETNAM. Lao Cai: 1♂, 4-6-XII-1997, A. Kun leg. (HNHM); 2♂♂, same locality, 8-VIII-1998, A. Kun leg. (HNHM); 1♂, same locality, 9-10-VIII-1998, A. Kun leg. (HNHM).

Specimen examinations of closely related species

Callopistria chloriza (Guenée, 1852)

INDONESIA. Java: holotype, 1♂, collecting date unknown, ex Horsfield collection, collector unknown (NHM).

Callopistria insularis Butler, 1882

PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Duke of York Island: holotype, 1♂, locality, collecting date and collector unknown (NHM). THE PHILIPPINES. Luzon : 1♂, Benguet, Pauai, 14-XI-1912, A. E. Wileman leg. (NHM)

Callopistria montana Holloway, 1976

MALAYSIA: Borneo: holotype, 1♂, Mt. Kinabalu, 17-VII-1965, H. J. Banks et al. leg. (NHM); 2♂♂, Sarawak, Gunong, Mulu National Park, VIII-1977, J. D. Holloway et al. leg. (NHM).

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Remarks

Identifications of this species were historically confusing in literature. When Hampson (1908) placed his “pulchrilinea” and “reticulata” in the sections II and IV of Callopistria (as Eriopus), he did not realize that these two names actually represented the same species, and both of his species were mis-identified during the time. It was later proven that the reticulata sensu Hampson was in fact the true pulchrilinea, while the pulchrilinea sensu Hampson was later decribed as alfredi by Holloway (1989). In addition, the C. pulchrilinea genitalia shown by Chang (1990: p. 352, fig. 208) is a mislabeled picture of Sphragifera biplagiata (Walker, 1865).

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Ecology and Distribution

Distribution

Global distribution

Widely distributed from the Oriental to African regions: Japan, Taiwan, China (Tibet), India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia (Borneo), Singapore, Indonesia (Amboina), Nepal, and W. Africa (Gabon).

Distribution in Taiwan

Low elevation primary and secondary broad-leaved forests of the main island.

Author(s): Yen, Shen-Horn; Wu, Shipher Creative Commons: by-nc

Taxonomy

  • Obana pulchrilinea Walker, 1862: 190 (Type locality: Borneo, Sarawak. Type in OXUM) (synonym)
  • Eriopus reticulata Pagenstecher, 1884: 226, pl. 6, fig. 7 (Type locality: Indonesia, Amboina. Type in MWNH) (synonym)
  • Eriopus reticulata var. duda Strand, 1921: 155 (Type locality: Franceville. Type in NHM) (synonym)

References

Hampson, G. F. (1908).  Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum 7. 692pp.
Hayashi, E. (2002).  Larva of Callopistria pulchrilinea (Walker) (Noctuidae) feeding on Selaginella uncinata (Lycophyta, Selaginellaceae). The Japan Heterocerists’ Journal. 221, 397-398.
Holloway, J. D. (1989).  The Moths of Borneo, part 12: Noctuidae: Noctuinae, Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. The Malayan Nature Journal. 42, 57-226.
Walker, F. (1862).  List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. 24, 1121.
Yamamoto, Y. (1965).  Noctuidae. (Issiki, S., et al, Ed.).Early stages of Japanese m moths in colour. 1, pp. 60-165.